Search database

Enclosed land

Enclosed landscape, small, often rectangular strips of land, lumped piecemeal, some smaller than half a hectare, each enclosed by hedgerows or low stone walls in a gently sloping landscape. Ex.:… [read more]

Enclosed land in Croatia

The history of the Croatian Adriatic landscape is characterized by its borderline position between Mediterranean, Balkans and Central Europe, and consequently, the peripheral status within the great empires or states (Ancient Greece, Roman Empire, Republic of Venice, Ottoman Empire, Napoleon’s France, Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire, Communist Block, Western World). [Read more]

Enclosed land in Czech Republic

In broad definition = landscapes partitioned by stonewalls and balks in a more or less regular pattern

[Read more]
Enclosed land in Germany

Fields can be enclosed by plants (initially planted) or with stones. The stones vary from region to region, according to geological aspects. The origin of the stones (in northern Germany) are the ice ages, which have covered parts of Northern Germany, especially the two last ones

[Read more]
Enclosed land in Norway

Enclosed fields in Norway are usually defined and talked about from the perspective of the stone walls that have been set up to create them. [Read more]

Enclosed land in Slovakia

Enclosed fields have no special national neither regional name. The name of each field was given usually according to land owners (surname) or according to natural specifics of fields. [Read more]

Enclosed land in Spain

Second half of the 14th century: reference of semi-openfields in Mondoñedo (Galicia)
First reference in XVIII century (Bouhier, 1979)
Boom: XIX and first half of XX century
After 1950s: Intensive systems
1960s: Breaking-up with traditional farming
1970s: Agricultural policy
1980s: Expansion of forestry
1986: Spain joins EU: milk and meat production development

[Read more]
Enclosed land in United Kingdom

Almost every region of England and Wales has its distinctive field patterns and types of boundary walling. These reflect not only the nature of the underlying geology and soil type but also the region’s cultural history. [Read more]

Farmland in Slovakia

It was developed during several phases of German and Wallachian colonisation Colonisers settled mountainous regions in Slovakia. Correspondingly with agricultural activities wood-processing industry, mining or charcoal burning were typically performed in colonised regions. The earliest were colonised regions situated in lower altitudes or those related to mining of wood-processing industry, in 14th century. Colonisers deforested extensive mountainous regions that had been never colonised before. [Read more]

Hay making structures in Slovakia

Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. [Read more]

Hay making structures in Slovenia

Dr. Anton Melik was the first researcher of hayracks. He describes the development of hayracks with following words:

Firstly, a pole was sunk into the ground vertically and was refered as stog. Two of such poles (ostrvi) in a row were gradually supplied with a number of horizontal bars and hung with hay. This device was called koza – kozel – kozolec, taking the name from the term for goat.

[Read more]
Terraced landscapes in France

Artificial terraced landscape date back early and historical findings prove wine cultivation at the rivers through Romans. They already used prepared terraces for the cultivation.

The majority of terraces is used for fruit, olive and wine production in the southern parts of France. There is also nut production.

[Read more]
Terraced landscapes in Germany

The used name in Germany is Terrassen and for the landscape Terrassenlandschaft, according to their function also Ackerterrassen and especially important Weinterrassen for wine growing. Old names are Stufenrain, Kulturwechselstufen (see fig. 2). An additional historic type is the so called “Wölbäcker”(see fig. 3). [Read more]

Terraced landscapes in Norway

Terraces have been a very common feature in parts of the Norwegian agricultural landscape for centuries. [Read more]

Terraced landscapes in Slovakia

Terraces for agricultural land use were established primarily during the Walachian colonisation wave between the 14th and 16th centuries in Slovakia (Stankoviansky, 2003). They either arose spontaneously as a result of long-term plowing of linear plots on milder slopes or they were built intentionally on steeper slopes to prevent soil erosion and movement of sediments downslope during the storm situations (Stankoviansky, 2007).

[Read more]
Terraced landscapes in United Kingdom

Deliberately created cultivation terraces have never been a feature in England (or the UK) but lynchets [Read more]

Water grasslands in Czech Republic

There are wetlands, waterlogging permanent pastures or meadows, but it is not controlled irrigation to increase agricultural productivity. Generally waterlogging meadows had been created by natural way. (High level of ground water, closeness of rivers or water reservoirs). Then water meadows have been created in places, where was interrupted melioration or after compacting of soil due to huge pressure on the soil profile.

[Read more]
Water grasslands in Germany

Water meadows are a traditional cultural landscape with origin in the 12th century. A system of small canals/ditches and small lakes (Weiher) have been created, in order to collect water from houses, streets and stables which shall be brought into the meadows in order to increase their productivity.

[Read more]
Water grasslands in France

Most of these meadows have always been maintained by traditional and extensive practices such as grazing and mowing for the production of hay.

[Read more]
Water grasslands in Norway

The importance of irrigation for productivity of meadows and other farmland was early recognized politically. [Read more]

Wooded grasslands in France

The sy [Read more]

Wooded grasslands in Germany

Since stone age known, that people have eaten fruits.

highest importance in Germany: 19th and 20th cent.

Example Brandenburg: promotion by the Cistercian monks in the 13th cent. New influences and cultivars by the Hugenots in 16-17th cent. 18th -19th cent. kings promoted fruit trees (KRUSE 1999, p. 186ff)

[Read more]
Wooded grasslands in Italy

The first informations about Italian wooden pastures date back to XVI century, when these land uses were listed in some maps of central Appennines, as in Molise, Abruzzo and Tuscany, where there was a pastoral system based on grazing and on the leaves coming from the pollarding of the trees that grown on the pastures.

[Read more]
Wooded grasslands in Norway

It is assumed that forests have been used for grazing since the beginning of agricultural land-use in the Stone Age, but at least for 2000 years. Forests have had many functions and have been utilised for, e.g., hunting, firewood, timber, and production of tar and charcoal. The forests’ function as grazing areas for domestic animals has probably been the most important one, at least until the start of coal mining in the 1500-1600s. [Read more]

Wooded grasslands in Slovakia

Grass covered mosaics originally tended towards mixed system. We have distinguished 2 types of the grass covered mosaics:

[Read more]