Landscape Categories

Coltura Promiscua

Coltura Promiscua

Definition

Mixed intensive farming in the middle of Italy, “classical” vertical layers in vegetation consisting of trees, bushes and ground cover are very much in evidence.

Source: MEEUS et al. (1990),… [Read more]
Common land

Common land

Definition
Land, that is used by several / all people/farmers of an area. Common land exist still today, e.g. in mountain regions (e.g. the Alps) or on transhumance pathways. Pasture or woodland owned and… [Read more]

Dehesas

Definition

Dehesas (Spanish), see also Montados (Portugese): The Dehesa systems are genuine forms of exploitation of the Mediterranean forests in which the native trees, holm oak, oak and cork oak, are… [Read more]

Agricultural activity on an alluvial fan built by a river near Thessaloniki, Greece (Photo: Csaba CENTERI 2010)

Delta landscapes

Definition

(1) “The Deltas of southern Europe are intensively cultivated areas, comparable in this respect with the Polders of NW Europe. (…) They are open landscapes with concentrations of rural and urban… [Read more]

Enclosed land

Definition

Enclosed landscape, small, often rectangular strips of land, lumped piecemeal, some smaller than half a hectare, each enclosed by hedgerows or low stone walls in a gently sloping landscape. Ex.:… [Read more]

Fallow land

Fallow land

Definition

Fallow land = idle land = waste land: (1) Agricultural land, where no agricul-tural production takes place; or temporarily between two crops. (2) Previously worked land, left uncultivated for… [Read more]

Farmland

Farmland

Definition

= arable (farm) land, cropland, infield: Land which can be used/ is used for growing crops with no or nearly no trees. Different kind of borders are characteristic of farmland, such as: hedges,… [Read more]

Fields

Field

Definition

Field is an area of land that is enclosed or otherwise defined for example by use, wheat field, corn field, grass field, used for agricultural purposes such as: cultivating crops, usage as a… [Read more]

Hay making structures

Definition

Hay making was and still is connected to certain temporary as well as permanent structures. That include: Temporary structures (with subtype on water meadows) and non-permanent structures.… [Read more]

Heathland

Heathland

Definition

(1) Heaths are shrub land habitats characterised by open, low growing woody vegetation, found on mainly infertile acidic soils, or on respectively poor soils. They are similar to moorland, but… [Read more]

Highlands

Highlands

Definition
(1) “(…) rough, empty and abandoned. (…) mountains and hills influenced by extremely wet conditions (up to 2000 mm of rain per year). Land use is limited to forestry below the tree line on maintain… [Read more]

Huertas

Definition

On the seaside boundaries of the vast, dry Mediterranean open land, regions of intensive cultivation are found. They are intersected by irrigation ditches and are often terraced. Vegetables and… [Read more]

Kampen

Definition

Dutch term: The fields are somewhat larger and more uniform than those of the Bocages but still have a patchwork quality to them. Kampens have generally cool, marine climate conditions, Ex.… [Read more]

Meadow with wild narcissi, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve near Rakhiv, Ukraine (Photo: Alexandra KRUSE 2009)

Meadow

Definition

A meadow is a field vegetated primarily by grass and other nonwoody plants. It may be cut for hay. Normally it is not used for livestock grazing. See also: transitional meadow.

Source:… [Read more]
Mediterranean open land

Mediterranean open land

Definition

The Mediterranean open fields varies quite distinctly from region to region although it still remains open land. Nowadays the open Mediterranean land is almost completely treeless; the flattened… [Read more]

Montados

Definition

see also Dehesas (Spanish): Orchard pastures, sought in the felling and overgrazing of old forests on hilly terrain. A shortage of water prevents permanent agricultural use. Originally: animal… [Read more]

Moorland

Definition
Moorland or moor is a type of habitat characterised by low growing vegetation on acidic soils. Moorland nowadays generally means uncultivated hill land. There exist two main types of moorlands: a)… [Read more]
Open fields

Open fields

Definition

Wide undulating plains with a regular pattern of large rectangular parcels of land. Farms are concentrated in villages. The remainder of the landscape is empty.” Ex.: large parts of France,… [Read more]

Orchard

Orchards

Definition

Plantation fields with planted fruit cultivation/fruit trees (apples, apricots etc.); special version: extensive fruit cultivation on meadows with a higher number of fruit trees.

Source:… [Read more]

Pasture

Definition

(1) Pasture (also grassland or paddock) is used in contrast to meadow for primarily grazing, which may include grassland (“grass pasture”), but also includes nongrassland habitats such as… [Read more]

Polder

Polder

Definition
Land that needs artificial drainage systems to remove excess water. Ex. NL Tract of land near, at or below sea-level re-claimed from the sea by dyking and draining. Source: (1) Definition elaborated… [Read more]
Realteilung

Realteilung

Definition

"Realteilung” translates to a family’s possessions, especially land and real estate, which are divided equally among the beneficiaries in real term: the number of smaller and smallest lots… [Read more]

Rural areas

Rural areas

Definition
Countryside: “Rural areas are sparsely settled areas without significant large cities or towns. The countryside refers to certain forms of landscapes and land uses where agriculture and natural areas… [Read more]
Semi Bocage

Semi Bocage

Definition

A variation of the bocage can be found in FR (Massif Central) and ES (Galicia). More or less enclosed, not all of the fields are demarcated, but sometimes there are hedgerows, or trees. There is… [Read more]

Steep terraced coast of Cinque Terre National Park, Italy (Photo: Csaba CENTERI 1997)

Terraced landscapes

Definition

(1) This form of land use is plasticized on terraces in order to maximize insolation. Terraces are typical for the whole Mediterranean. Typical plants: wine grapes, olive- and fruit trees (2)… [Read more]

Vine yards

Vine yards

Definition
A vineyard is a plantation of grape bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and nonalcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is… [Read more]

Water grasslands

Definition

Water grasslands are meadows and pastures with a certain water flooding regime in order to 1. have an earlier (spring) harvest and 2. increase productivity.

Source: Elaborated by EUCALAND… [Read more]

Wooded grasslands

Definition

Wooded grasslands are grazed land with trees - on pastures, meadows, grasslands. That include orchards, montados, dehesas, Streuobstwiesen. That does not include plantages, grazed forest, pastoral… [Read more]