Wooded grasslands in France

    What is the used name in your country?
    Prairies boisées
    How/why/by, whom was it created?

    The entries are still under process, the e-atlas is still under development.

     

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    The system exists since the end land reclamation of the monarchy in the Middle Ages, but with the agricultural disconnection after the war, the terrain was abandoned and/or reclaimed and the system declined.

    - Since 15 years, it is promoted by the regional authorities (Conseil Général CG) of Var within the cadre of a sustainable forestry (DFCI: Défense de la Forêt contre les Incendies) - especially regarding forest fires.

    - In this regions, this production of quality products, like a know-how transmission of the ancestors (olive, chestnut, truffle, wine).

    - Paysage autoritaire (authoritarian landscapes). Here, the landscape is the fruit, at once, the result of its own and of human activity. There, where the landscape is managed and is receiving „help“, for its proper development, e.g. in the Jura Massif, it is determined for and by mankind (cutting and zoning (and protection) of the natural areas, clearing …).

    - Three systems of breeding are connected to the timber (fire wood) cutting:

    1. winter transhumance (the animals spend the summer in the mountains, during winter they stay at the coastal zone),

    2. reorganisational pastoralism (one try to establish a local transhumance, while inviting local breeder to send their animals to the common fields.

    3. installation of sylvo-pastoralism (breeder sends his animals to the clearing zones in order to keep the animals there and the zone open.

    The four types of wooded grasslands

    The four types of wooded grasslands

    Literature

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    CG VAR (2007). Agriculture, une priorité pour le conseil général du Var. CG VAR [En ligne], www.var.fr.

    DIMANCHE, M (2007). « Guide pour la gestion des coupures de combustible par l’agropastoralisme ». France, Chambres d’Agriculture, étude menée avec le SUAMME. [online]

    FRANCE, CG DU VAR (2011). Rubrique Environnement. [online].

    FRANCE, CG DU VAR (2011). Le sylvopastoralisme. Pourquoi utiliser l'agriculture en forêt ? [online], www.var.fr.

    INVENTAIRE FORESTIER NATIONAL (1999). Département du var, résultats du troisième inventaire forestier. France, IFN.

    JOFFRE R & MEURET M & HUBERT B (1991). Les systèmes agro-sylvopastoraux méditerranéens : enjeux et réflexions pour une gestion raisonnée. Dossier MAB 10, UNESCO, Paris.

    NAPOLEONE, C. Revue d’économie rurale. « De l’expérience de développement au développement des expériences, cas du pastoralisme à but DFCI ». Janvier 1993.

    OBSERVATOIRE DE LA FORET MÉDITERRANÉENNE (2008). D'après le mémoire de stage de Fanny Roux « L’autoprotection des constructions exposées au risque d’incendie de foret en paca ». [online].

    RIVRY-FOURNIER , C (2006). « La chèvre au secours de l’environnement ». Biofil, juillet 2006.

    Occurence

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    The agro-sylvo-pastoralism in the Var region is a system of mixed production: extensive animal production, intensive fodder corn production, orchards etc. (chestnut, olives, wine,…).

    Physical geography: description

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    The deposits are very important. The yearly rainfall is between 1 000 and 1500 mm on average. We speak about a Mediterranean mountain climate. The highest importance of rain is in the autumn season, and the aestival aridity is very characteristically.

    - We find only two principal rivers (river Argens and river Verdon), furthermore some smal confluents.

    - Lime stone on which we find a calcareous soil and a slaty texture.

    - The presence of oaks (vert, pubescent, liège,), chestnut, beech and pine (maritimes, sylvestre, d’alep).

    How is it used today?

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    Growing importance, developed by and with means of the public authorities

    - But the system depends completely on the financial support of the CG.

    - Constant developing management: contracts with the animal producers, partners with the national forest office (ONF), management by CERPAM... Agro-sylvo-pastoralism as regional tool against the forest fires

    It increases the worth and value of the soil and the regional products as it is the tool against the forest fires, therefore one can speak of a double use of the agro-sylvo-pastoralism.

    Is it connected to specific structures?

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    - The system sets in relation several agricultural activities: forestry, soil production and orchards, renewal of agricultural activities on former agricultural land (olive- and oil- production, truffle-, wine- and chestnut production, ...), alpine and pasture farming (sheeps, goats), crop production.

     

    Is it connected to specific functions?

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    - Main function: protection of human settlement and activities. The agro-sylvo-pastoral system of the Var region protects the zones intermediary, keeps them wood free and provides therefore the possibility of acting and accessing rapidly in case of fire.

    About awareness

    For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

     

    - Only a few people know about the agro-sylvo-pastoralism in the Var region. But the CG communicates towards the inhabitants about the risks of fire and the measures that have been set in place.

    - Other countries have taken notice of the program and are interested. A common Mediterranean project within the cadre of the European INCENDI program has been developed, based on the Var experiences.