Hay making structures in Germany

    What is the used name in your country?
    Heu
    How/why/by, whom was it created?

    The entries are still in process, the e-atlas is still under development

     

    Farmers – 100 % a wanted product on meadows
    More or less all over Germany, getting lees important due to silage
    2-6 grass cuts/year, the first is calledhay cut“, 2nd and 3rd may be used for hay as well
    Fire and fire protection from 18th cent.
    Mechanisation
    Today appreciated for cheese production
    horses, pets but also under cultural land-
    scape (quality) aspects; alternative medicine

    Stable in the Hessenpark open-air museum in Germany

    Stable in the Hessenpark open-air museum in Germany

    Haystack in the Spreewald in Brandenburg (South-East of Berlin) in Germany

    Haystack in the Spreewald in Brandenburg (South-East of Berlin) in Germany

    Hay field in Germany

    Hay field in Germany

    Literature

    Steven R. Hoffbeck (2000). The Haymakers: A Chronicle of Five Farm Families. Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 29–32. ISBN 978-0-87351-395-1.

    "Haystack – Define Haystack at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC.

    Falk, Cynthia. Barns of New York: Rural Architecture of the Empire State. Cornell University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-8014-6445-5.

    Francis, Irv E.). About Dreams and Memories on the Old Farm. AuthorHouse. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4634-4959-9

    Tresemer, David Ward (1996). The Scythe Book: Mowing Hay, Cutting Weeds, and Harvesting Small Grains, with Hand Tools. Alan C. Hood. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-911469-14-1.

    Ernst, Lisa; Swaney, Alexandra. "The Beaverslide: Homegrown Haying Technology". Folklife. Montana Arts Council.

    HEU, n. foenum. In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: Deutsches Wörterbuch. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 (woerterbuchnetz.de, Universität Trier).

    EMDE, n. chordum, grummet. In: Grimm: Deutsches Wörterbuch. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 (woerterbuchnetz.de, Universität Trier).

    Mit Rucksack und Sense in die Maulbeerau. -Die Heuernte wie sie früher einmal war–. Rathaus Bürstadt, 10. Februar 2004, archiviert vom Original am 21. Juli 2012, abgerufen am 21. Juni 2013 (Der Wiesbalken war ein mehrere Meter langer Rundholz–Balken, welcher über das Fuhrwerk hinausreichte. Die Windelöffel waren „paddelförmige“ Bretter welche in die Seilwinde gesteckt und zum Spannen benutzt wurden. Die Seilwinde selbst, war ein achteckig gehobeltes Rundholz, welches an den Enden gelagert war. Das Rundholz hatte um 90° versetzte Langlöcher, in diese Langlöcher wurden die Winde–löffel abwechselnd gesteckt. Durch drehen des Rundholzes wurde das Seil gespannt.).

    Heumilch – ein Marketingschmäh?. In: Wiener Zeitung, 1. Oktober 2010.

    Dr. Hans Oechsner: Besichtigung der Pilotanlage zur Heuverbrennung. In: ALB-Fachgespräch Holz, Getreide & Co. ALB Baden-Württemberg e.V., abgerufen am 21. Juni 2013 (PDF; 519 kB).

    Occurence

    It exists in many, nearly in all parts of Germany
    Regional:
    river valleys
    hilly regions
    mountain regions
    flat areas

    No category for Hay meadows in our famous “Landscapes to be protected in Germany by the National Agency of Nature Conservation” (no meadows at all.)
    Corine landcover: 231 Pasture, meadows and other permanent grassland under agricultural use

    Semi-intensive (e.g. meadows)
    Intensive (e.g. pure cutting greenland)
    In some regions today dominant landscape type, where agricultural field production has stopped. But horse keeping is kept and meadows as part of the cultural landscape

    Physical geography: description


    Is it connected to
    a special soil condition (substrate): no
    a certain altitude: no
    Climate: no
    Hydrology: not really
    Slope Aspect: no – if it gets too steep, mowing per hand or semi-mechanised still exists, but less

    How is it used today?

    It is both still in use today and relict / abandoned
    It was maybe threatened in the late 20th century but today it is highly appreciated and therefore it still or again exists
    But no need of that many barns any more, therefore new concepts of use have been created

    Is it combined with/connected to something typical (traditional)?

    building type
    barns (for hay stocking, material or shelter)
    Hay racks, sticks, etc
    production type
    All kind of animinal husbandry
    products: see above

    Is it connected to specific structures?

    Temporary structures (with subtype on water meadows) and non-permanent structures,
    Temporary structures with removable elements like wooden sticks inside
    Permanent structures on the grassland for drying and for storage, e.g. the Slovenian type but also the wooden houses in the Alps, (hay loft)
    Permanent structures not at the grassland, also at the farm itself like barns

    Is it connected to specific functions?

    Many species are adapted, some are indegenious
    Problem: breeding birds, European hare and others
    Problem: draining of wet meadows = loss of living space

    Machines, tractors, Kiepe

    Is it connected to specific values?

    Wine feasts, wine queen

    About awareness

    High among nature protection / planners and farmers, tourism
    Local people