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Coltura Promiscua in France

Research & upload: Bénédicte Gaillard: The entries are still in process, the e-atlas is still under development.

 

This technique is known since the Antiquity.

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Dehesas in France

The entries are still in process, the e-atlas is still under development

 

Dehesas always existed but are now tremendously diminishing and are being replaced. This evolution is mainly due to the increase of intensive agriculture, to the development of enclosed fields and to the high level or urbanisation.

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Delta landscapes in France

The entries are still in process, the e-atlas is still under development

 

The Delta du Rhône was formed 10.000 years ago by the penetration and decline of the sea and the edification of sandy spits.

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Enclosed land in France

Research: Alexandra Kruse & Bénédicte Gaillard; upload: Bénédicte Gaillard. The entries are still in progress.

 

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Fallow land in France

The entries are still in process, the e-atlas is still under development

 

It started around the year 1000 after JC.

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Farmland in France

Research & upload: Bénédicte Gaillard. The entries are still in process.

 

The Neolithic Revolution leading from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle has engendered an evolution from hunter-gatherer to sheep and cattle breeding, the cultivation of wheat and barley grains, on the territory of France around the 5th Century before JC. From this period on man works and plough the soil.

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Hay making structures in France

Research: Alexandra Kruse & Bénédicte Gaillar; upload: Bénédicte Gaillard. The entries are still in process.

 

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Orchards in France

Some writings about orchards in France dating from the 16th Century have been found.

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Terraced landscapes in France

Research: Alexandra Kruse & Bénédicte Gaillard; Upload: Bénédicte Gaillard. The entries are still in process

Artificial terraced landscape date back early and historical findings prove wine cultivation at the rivers through Romans. They already used prepared terraces for the cultivation.

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Water grasslands in France

Research: Bénédicte Gaillard & Alexandra Kruse; upload: Bénédicte Gaillard: The entries are still in process

 

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Wooded grasslands in France

Research: Yves Michelin et al, Alexandra Kruse, Bénédicte Gaillard; upload: Bénédicte Gaillard: The entries are still under process.

 

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Wooded grasslands in France

For this entry, the example of the Var region in the South East of France has been taken.

 

The agro-sylvo-pastoralism in the Var region is a system of mixed production: extensive animal production, intensive fodder corn production, orchards etc. (chestnut, olives, wine,…).

Coltura Promiscua in France

It still occurs in the vineyards of Alsace, but it is rare: 74ha or 0,5% of the vine production in Alsace.

In Normandie the complantation with apple or pear trees can been found in semi bocage enclosed fields. In Alsace they are found on the vineyards and in Provence they took place on the Lure mountain.

Farmland in France

It is dominant and characteristic of the landscape since it represents half of the national territory, it represents 3,5% of the gross domestic product of the country, there are 348.000 agricultural exploitations and 770.000 people fully employed in this sector.

The surface of agricultural land is divided as such:

 

18,4 millions of ha of arable soils among them cereals (9,4), temporary grassland and annual crop (4,9), oleaginous (2,3), other annual cultivation (1,3) and fallow land (0,5)

1 million of ha of permanent cultivation (orchards, vineyards)

7,7 millions of ha of permanent grassland

1,9 million of ha of agricultural land used off-farm among them collective grassland and off-field (1,8) and family gardens and orchards (0,1)

 

This surface is constantly decreasing because of the augmentation of wooded surfaces and mainly artificialised (modified) surfaces (around 3,4 millions of ha of built surfaces, covered or rendered unfit to cultivation:

 

*Not built (0,8 million of ha) corresponds to surfaces such as construction sites, quarries, court yards, pleasure gardens, waste lands, cemeteries)

*Covered soils (1,7 million of ha) correspond to roads and park places

*Built soils (0,9%) receive new constructions