Orchards in Netherlands

    How/why/by, whom was it created?

    Research: Hans Renes; upload: Bénédicte Gaillard. Entries still in progress.


    Until the 19th century: small-scale and mainly on farmyards. Larger density in and around towns.

    1880s: grain crisis, globalisation, modernisation. Self-strengthening process of specialisation

    Concentration in a few regions

    In those regions industry, education, marketing infrastructure

    Since 1960s: enlargement of scale and move to uniform orchards with low trees

    Physical geography: description

    Old orchards: ‘high’ trees, individually planted, many different types (spreading of risks, income, workload), combined with pasture (‘fruit pastures’). Located near farms.


    Modern orchards: larger (South-Limburg: from valleys to plateaus), aiming at maximum production, low and uniform trees (possibility of mechanisation). Look very different on air photographs.


    Some of the old orchards are preserved for reasons of landscape and biodiversity. Much work done by volunteers. Profit from growing interest in local products.